5 Quotes That Haunt & Inspire #mission #purpose #why

I’m a collector…a collector of books, ideas, and quotes. I have notebooks with random quotes scribbled on pages from books, articles, lectures and presentations, even some movies. Out of all the quotes, some seem to come to mind almost weekly. These are ones that haunt me.

“Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to come with me and change the world?”

These are the alleged words spoken by Steve Jobs to John Scully, the words that convinced Scully to leave a top position at Pepsi Cola to join a 4-year startup called Apple. Each time I read, hear or remember this quote; I am drawn into a reflection about my own life’s work. Am I selling sugar water right now, or am I doing something that can change the world? The quote is a humbling and inspiring reminder to take seriously how we choose to spend our time and energy. The answer will vary from person to person depending upon talents, abilities, passions and interests, opportunities, life circumstances and the events around us.

‘I wish it would not happen when I was alive’ said Frodo. ‘So do I’ Said Gandalf, ‘and so do all those who live in hard times. But they can’t choose what time they are born in. All we can choose is what to do with that time.

From the Lord of the Rings, this short exchange between Gandalf and Frodo speaks to what we can’t change. We don’t choose the times or places in which we are born. We don’t choose many of the challenges, troubles or world events that will occur during our lives. All we can choose is how we will live in those times, how we will or will not respond to them.

For if you remain silent at this time, relief and deliverance for the Jews will arise from another place, but you and your father’s family will perish. And who knows but that you have come to your royal position for such a time as this?

From the Book of Esther, this quote comes at a time when Queen Esther must decide whether she will stand by silent while her people are massacred, or whether she will speak to the king on their behalf, even at the risk of her life. This statement calls me to consider the opportunity and purpose behind the circumstances in my life. Regardless of the life circumstance, it drives me to ask ask, “Could it be that I am here for such a time as this?”

 “Most revolutions end with the people still oppressed by the same or a different cruel master.”

This was a quote shared by Jim Shelton at the 2012 Education Innovation Summit, and it sticks with me. It was mentioned in the context of educational innovation, a reminder that we may seek to bring about an educational revolution with our work, but there is a very real risk that that our solutions to one problem/oppressor only create a new one problem/oppressor. And I am humbled by the fact that it is often difficult for us to foresee such things.

 “Whoever marries the spirit of this age will find himself a widower in the next.”

Stated by William Inge, this quote is also a humbling reminder to not cling our lean into those things that are fleeting; but rather to seek after those things that matter across time and generations. I do not interpret this to mean that I ignore trends and innovations, but it does drive me to strive from a clear and compelling “why” behind each one. What is the larger goal, purpose or value?

15 Organizations That Model & Inspire Educational Innovation

We live in exciting times. There is unprecedented educational experimentation and exploration. Even more exciting, people and organizations are exploring new and creative ways to address important social problems and challenges by rethinking how we go about education in an increasingly connected world.

There are hundreds, even thousands of organizations that are doing good and important work in education. While there are plenty of organizations in the education sector that continue to be driven by the yearning for as much market share as possible or for what seems like the primary goal of self-preservation, there are plenty of others that have clear and compelling visions, that embrace their responsibility and calling to promote social good through work in education, and that are helping us explore and imagine new and promising possibilities for education in a connected world. While far from an exhaustive list, here are fifteen such organizations, ranging from private to public, non-profit to for-profit, education providers to facilitators of educational movements. If you want a glimpse into some of the more promising things happening in education today, take a look at what these organizations are doing. In fact, if you want to be part of  some of the most promising movements in education, find a way to get involved with one or more of these groups. 

1. Digital Promise – The mission of this organization is to, “Improve the opportunity to learn for all Americans through technology and research.” This mission has led them into any number of initiatives: efforts to bridge the skills gap for adult learners, the league of innovative schools (a coalition of K-12 schools working together to address important challenges through a blend of educational research and learning technologies), and their new micro-credential / digital badge project focused upon reimagining ongoing professional development for educators.

2. Jobs for the Future – This is one of the more exciting organizations to me right now. They are “working to expand the college, career, and life prospects of low-income youth and adults across 25 states.” This includes projects like Credentials that Work (“aligning career training with employer demand”), efforts to increase college readiness, as well as impressive work around early college designs (“reinventing high schools for post-secondary success”). 

3. Badge Alliance – Started this year (2014), this alliance of key organizations like the Mozilla and MacArthur Foundation, “is a network of organizations and people working together to build and support an open badging ecosystem, with a focus on shared values including openness, learner agency and innovation.” They are leading the way and providing important connections among those who are interested in exploring the possibilities of micro-credentials for everything from out-of-school learning to increasing job opportunities for veterans, creating citywide networks of learning around digital badges, or even a growing number of K-12 and higher education institutions experimenting the role of these new credentials. This is a new group and much of the work is just getting started, but I am already seeing some exciting developments from the early working groups organized by the Badge Alliance. 

4. Western Governor’s University – WGU has been around for over 15 years, and it currently serves over 40,000 students throughout the United Sates with quality competency-based online degrees. There are parts to their model that I would like to tweak (like leaving more room for self-directed learning within a competency-based model), but what they have done has created a model for others. They have been groundbreakers in the developing world of competency-based education, challenging the odd historic practice of measuring student progress by seat time instead of what students know and can do.

Arizona State University – What Michael Crow has promoted during his time as President of ASU is nothing short of impressive: casting a vision for an entrepreneurial state University, building a high-quality online program through ASU Online, creating “trandsciplinary schools”, efforts to increase access and opportunity to higher education, corporate partnerships like the recent ASU / Starbucks program, and nurturing a startup culture. ASU is, without question, one of the most innovative higher education institutions in the world.

5. P2PU – Their tag line reads, “learning by everyone for everyone about almost anything. completely free.” P2PU is a brilliant social experiment in open education, leveraging the power of life and learning in a connected world, and peer-to-peer learning. Their MOOCs and other open courses are not just replications of authoritarian educational institutions and frameworks put into an online format. They have re-envisioned and redefined the word “University” with an unswerving commitment to openness and peeragogy.

6. Udacity - This one gets mixed reviews in the media (as to almost all innovative organizations), but Udacity is helping us to rethink credentials and education leading to employable skills through their new nano-degrees and courses designed around project-based learning. Unlike other online learning provides, both Udacity and P2PU are making their work about more than just digitizing old school courses and programs. They are giving us new and promising models. In fact, Udacity’s most recent is potentially a direct challenge to traditional Universities that dismiss workforce development as beneath them (which, by the way, is just what happens to companies and organizations that are just about to experience a disruptive innovation).

7. EdSurge – This is my single favorite news source for educational innovation and educational technology. If you have not done so, sign up for their newsletter today. From their website, “EdSurge is an independent information resource and community for everyone involved in education technology.” It is more than a news and resource center. Leaders at EdSurge are pulling up their sleeves and helping to build important networks, communities, gatherings, and even helping to recognize and highlight high-impact people and organizations through their Digital innovation and learning awards. Organizations like EdSurge help build bridges and networks among educational innovators that help great ideas spread, and help people find their place in this exciting world of educational entrepreneurship and innovation.

8. Maker Faire – The Maker Faire movement is helping to elevate a culture of creation in a world of consumption. They are doing it one maker faire at a time: providing a forum for makers to share their amazing creations, giving people a glimpse and invitation into the maker world, and promoting a vision for learning by doing and creating.

9. Thomas Fordham Institute – Here is their stated mission, “The Thomas B. Fordham Institute is the nation’s leader in advancing educational excellence for every child through quality research, analysis, and commentary, as well as on-the-ground action and advocacy in Ohio.” Even if I do not agree with all the commentary, I find this to be one of the more researched and enlightening sources of information about current and emerging research focused on educational innovation. They are leading voices in places like Ohio around a vision of ample choices for diverse students; whether it be charters, magnet schools, school choice programs, blended and online learning options, and dual credit. 

10. Khan Academy - If you haven’t check it out lately, take a few minutes. Their mission is, to change, “education for the better by providing a free world-class education for anyone anywhere.” It is an instigator for a world-wide conversation about the flipped classroom (although there are certainly many other major voices). Along the way, they have grow into some fascinating work that ventures into mastery-based learning, personalized learning, self-directed learning, adaptive learning, and learning analytics. As such, Khan Academy is a great example of a how an education startup can help people imagine new ways of going about teaching and learning, even impacting traditional schooling environments from the outside…but then seeing it find its way into many of those very traditional schools.

11. North Star Self-Directed Learning for Teens – I remember talking to one of the founders about three or four years ago on the phone, just learning more about the work they do. They are not a school. Instead, students sign up with the state as a homeschooler, but they come to this place of self-directed learning, get coaching and guidance as needed, and take responsibility for their own learning. Check out their site and videos for a better understanding of their work. Since my initial conversation several years ago, they have gained national attention and become a model for other self-directed centers around the United States. As such, they have essentially created a new model of schooling, neither traditional homeschooling or a teacher-led traditional school. They are an example of

12. Kidnected World - “kids create social good by doing what they love to do” – I learned about this group at the 2014 ISTE conference, more specifically as part of the the startup pitchfest (Have I mentioned that I am addicted to education startup pitches…what I consider the poetry slams of the education startup world?). This nonprofit exists to provide the tools that kids need to change the world. The goal is to connect kids to one another and provide them with tools to be agents of change by using their imagination and playing with others (what they already do well). That is where their “wonderment” comes in. It is a community. Kids enter, pick a path, participate in a challenge, see other kids joining in, the “wonder meter” rises, and they see the impact of a social good project. This is one of many exciting efforts to blend education and having a social impact. Is it more effective to tell kids about the good they can do once they finish twelve or sixteen years of formal school, or to actually provide them with the tools and means to impact the world right now? Organizations like Kidnected World are showing us the wisdom and possibility of the latter.

13. The Learning Revolution Project – Developed by Steve Hargadon, the Learning Revolution Project includes opportunities to learn about and from leaders and innovators across the field of education. The project has an impressive list of partners ranging from higher education institutions to professional organizations and companies in the education sector. This project includes opportunities to learn from and network through various communities, a growing number of free online conferences (with a refreshing spirit of openness), tour events with a special theme, as well as the beloved ISTE unplugged event hosted before the official start of the ISTE conference each year. Education is a field that thrives on openness, sharing, and networking; and The Learning Revolution Project is a champion and model for all three.

14. Alternative Education Resource Organization – The stated goal of AERO is to, “advance student-driven, learner-centered approaches to education.” As such, this is a single organization where you can learn about everything from Waldorf education to Sudbury schools, Montessori to Reggio Emilia, educational co-ops to unschooling. Even if you don’t embrace any of these models or visions, it is an organization that provides a collection of alternative voices to the dominance of talk about testing and national standards that seem to drive so many other contemporary K-12 efforts. This is an organization to follow if you want to learn from diverse models and perspectives.

15. Duolingo – At first glance, this is just a company if a fun and user-friendly app for learning a new language. Look closer and you see a company serious about figuring out how to best help people learn a new language, promsing work around the gamification of learning, and a willingness to also step into the realm of credentialing and certification of learning. It is probably this last part that ensured a spot on my list of fifteen, as they are providing a distruptive innovation in the world if English language certification for students seeking to study in the United States. They are offering a free (soon to be $20) test that is comparable ot TOEFL! This is a trend to watch, education companies that don’t just stop at offering educational opportunities, but are also willing to establish new forms of certification and credentialing that challenge traditional systems.

The Value of School Choice & Charters in a Compulsory Education System

Ideology – “The ideas and manner of thinking characteristic of a group, social class, or individual.

Values – “A person’s principles or standards of behavior; one’s judgment of what is important in life

- Oxford Dictionary Online

Compulsory without ChoiceRight now the United States has a compulsory public education system (with compulsory education being adopted across the country from 1852 to 1918). In the past, parents were fined for not complying, and there was even the threat of taking children away from parents who resisted the laws of compulsory schooling. Since education is required, it is also provided for free. After all, you can’t require someone to attend a school that they can’t afford. And there are also provisions for allowing people the option of homeschooling or attending a private school. In a context like this, I see immense value (even importance) in maintaining a commitment to school choice, vouchers, and charter schools. My argument is not made by claiming that charters outperform other schools, or that they even do a better job in some easily quantifiable manner. It is also not made without recognizing abuses of some people with charters and choice, and the need to refine policy to address such problems and to demand accountability and transparency (as evidenced by a recent news release where the State of Michigan stated that 11 authorizers are “at risk of suspension” to create new charters). My position is instead informed by the role of ideology and values in education.

Look at writings in support of compulsory school from around the world, and these are some of the arguments that you see. 1) It creates a shared socialization experience for all children. 2) It ensures a baseline level of education for all children. 3) It gives children a chance to “escape” the ideals and beliefs of their family. Let’s consider each of these.

“It ensures a baseline level of education for all children.”

There are several important aspects to this claim, but I will focus upon two. First, I accept that there is indeed some truth to the claim, although we certainly do not have a baseline level of knowledge and skill among students today. And even when we see a baseline in given schools or districts, this does not address important issues, like the fact that some of the most valuable knowledge and skills that students learn comes from beyond school. It happens through socialization in school and community; through informal play, experimentation and exploration; through having mentors and role models in life; through access to books in the home; through the groups and communities in which people participate beyond school. These have immense influence on the future of young people. There is something to be said about certain baselines, like having people pass a basic driver’s test before getting a license, but there is not as clear of an agreed upon baseline in K-12 schooling, which leads us to the second point. What is the baseline? Who determines it? Who should or does get to decide what students do and do not learn…and how the learning takes place? That leads us quickly to the other two arguments for compulsory education.

“It gives children a chance to ‘escape’ the ideals and beliefs of their family by experiencing a “neutral” education.” and “It creates a shared socialization experience for all children.”

Visit a dozen public schools around the United States. Sit in the classes. Interview the students and teachers. Then try repeating this statement about the public education system providing a “neutral” education. Public education is deeply ideological and values-laden. The curriculum in schools is not as neutral as the criteria for a driver’s education program. There are strong ideological positions about everything from the human condition and human nature to ethics and social issues.

It can’t be avoided. Look at government and politics. Do we have ideology-free environments there?   Even in classes and schools where teachers try to hide their personal ideologies, beliefs and convictions; they show up. And if a school achieved complete ideological neutrality (which I contend is not possible), do we really want to provide an education that is free from any ideological discourse? If we do, then we have promoted a new ideology, one that is a-ideological. Look at the closing statement from President Obama’s State of the Union Address in January, 2014. What are his closing words? “God bless you, and God bless the United States of America.” Is that ideologically neutral? How about our laws? What about the Bill of Rights? These are full of values and ideology. 

Ideologies are not just about matters of religions and ethics. They are also about beliefs and convictions regarding what constitutes a good education. These venture into what is learned and/or taught, but also into how it is learned and taught. The environment and culture is part of what is learned in a school. School leaders and teachers have strong convictions about how students should learn, behave, and act in school; but there is no universal agreement on these matters. Some value more student-led and democratic visions of schooling, where others argue for strong standards-based models that mandate to teachers what to teach and students what to learn. Some promote test-driven models while others advocate for more narrative feedback and portfolio assessment. Some promote a direct instruction vision where others embrace a project-based learning model. These all teach values and ideologies. They influence students in largely different ways, impacting how they think about themselves, others, and the world around them.

The Role of Choice

So, given this reality, what happens if we have a compulsory education system across the United States that provides little to no student or family choice on what and how things are learned? This is not a neutral education. Do we really want to repeat the errors of past generations in the United States when we forced native American children into boarding schools to “socialize” them? “Kill the native to save the man.” The United States does not have a track record of providing a neutral public education to young people. This is an education intended to teach the values and ideologies of the majority or of those with the greatest voice and influence in a given public school or school district. This is not an attack on public education, only a defense of choice in face of the fact that all schools (public and private) teach values and are influenced by ideology. Each public school and/or district haas control and influence over the values and ideologies that emerge in the school(s). And control and influence without individuals having choice is a dangerous and Orwellian path.

This is where school choice, voucher programs, and charter schools fit into my own philosophy of education. If we are going to require students to attend school, and school is incapable of being truly neutral, then it seems to me that the best option is to at least provide families and students with choice about the type of schools they choose to attend.

This is why debates about school choice can’t be reduced to comparisons of student performance and achievement on standardized tests, because more is taught and learned in school than what is measured on these tests. Education is about more than what certain groups choose to define as the best measures of student achievement, because those choices about what to test also reflect ideologies and values.

Without choice, vouchers, and charters; compulsory education mandates that students get an education into certain ideologies and values unless they have the money or life situation to afford homeschooling or a private school. Why should educational freedom related to one’s ideologies, beliefs, values and convictions only be available to those who can pay for it? That seems to set up a system that limits the rights of families based upon their economic situation.

What a second. We don’t let people choose which court to go to when they are on trial. Why should schools be any different? No, but we do have a jury of peers and legal counsel on both sides who have say in the makeup of that jury. That is not how we hire administrators and teachers in our local public schools, nor is it how we adopt curriculum or decide upon educational philosophies that shape the schools. And the court example allows choice and influence at the individual level…for each new person on trial. We don’t typically allow such choice on an individual level in our traditional schools.

Among those who argue against charters and choice, they are often some of the same who argue for putting the decisions in the hands of schools and teachers, not politicians and businesses. I agree with that in large part, but it does not solve the values and ideological issues that I’ve described so far. Note that the value is pro-teacher and pro-school (which is commendable), but there is nothing about leaving decisions to parents and students. What about pro-parent, pro-family, and pro-student? This is a massive philosophical and ideological difference among people in the United States. If some are trying to close down charters and remove choice and vouchers as an option from families, then we must give them an immense amount of choice and influence on what is taught/learned and the school culture.

Another position of some of the same people who argue against choice, vouchers and charters is the need to create a national curriculum that states what children in every grade should learn. Note that this is also about mandating values and ideologies on a national level in public schools. Not only do some people argue against choice and charters, but some of them also want to mandate the values and ideas taught to people in the only free education options that would be available to families. I realize that people will challenge me on this point, arguing that there is nothing that ideological about what we see in nationalized curricula, but that strikes me as being amazingly uninformed about the wonderfully diverse set of beliefs and values that come together in the people of the United States.

The vision of this nation is not to make everyone the same. We do strive toward certain shared values associated with the US Constitution, but schooling ventures into far more ideological and values-laden areas. As long as that is the case, I remain a strong advocate for the importance of choice, vouchers and charters; not to create some sort of healthy competition to improve the overall quality of education (because I don’t see evidence that it works that way), but because I believe in a vision of the United States that honors and values the Bill of Rights.

I recognize that there are serious challenges and problems in some choice, voucher and charter programs around the country…and they need to be addressed. Yet, I can’t support getting rid of them as long as we maintain a commitment to compulsory education.

12 Questions to Answer Before You Puruse A Graduate Degree

Are you thinking about pursuing another college degree? Are you in the business of encouraging others to do so? Please read this. A growing number of Universities are spending in excess of twenty percent on marketing. Higher education marketing and recruitment is a billion dollar industry. That means that we are bombarded with more higher education advertisements (just notice the ads showing up as you browse the web), and this is creating even more of a credentialing crisis.

I have over twenty years of experience in the field of education, four college degrees (a bachelor’s, two master’s degrees, and a doctorate), and I have worked in higher education for almost nine including. More importantly, I have been researching academic credentials and the value of college degrees for several years. I am not writing this to discourage anyone from pursuing second degrees or graduate studies, but I am writing it to challenge people to count the costs, do their homework, make the most informed decision possible, and take into account the social impact of over-credentialing.

Here is how to do that. Take the time to reflect on each of these questions. Don’t just skim through them, but dedicated time to each of them. Degrees are expensive and time-consuming and they warrant careful consideration.

1. What are your personal and professional goals? 

Don’t just think about goals for a promotion or raise. Be brutally honest with yourself. What do you really want to have or achieve? Is another college degree essential, important or just modestly beneficial in achieving those goals? Look into this carefully. Find out about all the options available to you. Some career paths and goals have certain degrees as essential for entry into them. However, there are often surprising options available that just don’t get the marketing dollars spent on them to make you think about them all the time. For example, maybe there are alternate routes for entry into a given profession. Learn as much as you can about those different options so that you make a wise and informed decision.

2. Do you care about increased knowledge and skill?

If not, please do not pursue another degree. A college degree is supposed to represent that you gained new knowledge and skill in a given domain. It is possible to get through many programs while learning or retaining very little. You have the same diploma as the person who learned as much as possible, but the fact that you have the degree while not taking the education part serious hurts everyone else with that degree. It diminishes the value of that degree.

3. Are you a self-directed learner? Do you know how to gain new knowledge and skill?

If not, learn to become one. A self-directed learner is someone who takes personal responsibility for determining what you need to learn, how to learn it, and how to get the necessary feedback to grow and improve. It is someone who embraces and works through the messiness and discomfort of learning something new. A sure sign of one who is not self-directed is a student who is always blaming the professor or school for not having taught or prepared them well. Self-directed learners do what it takes to learn what they need or want, regardless of what others do. As such, truly confident and competent self-directed learners rarely have a shortage of career and other options and opportunities in life.

Most college degrees do not encourage self-directed learning. They instead focus upon teacher-directed learning. Authority figures tells you what to learn, how to learn it, and how you are doing. You submit to that authority, do what they say, and jump through the academic hoops. Here is the problem. This is not going to help you be at the top of your game in life and work.

So, I argue that it is important to develop competence and confidence as a self-directed learner before starting another program or even if you choose not to pursue that next degree. Or, find degrees that value self-directed learning and even help you develop as one. A great start is to build a strong and robust personal learning network.

The reality is that success in almost any field or discipline requires a commitment to lifelong learning. Becoming a self-directed learner will help with that. Pursuing a degree without also growing as a self-directed learning is, in my opinion, a waste of time in the long run.

4. What can you learn without being in a formal program or getting another degree?

There are many benefits to being in a formal degree program. There is often a rich community and access to experts. However, you can gain access to learning communities and experts without being a degree program as well. That is where the last point about personal learning networks and becoming a self-directed learner is important. Look into massive open online courses, read books and articles, participate in free online webinars and conferences, join online communities of practice about your area of interest. Follow people in your area of interest on Twitter and Linked In. Read what they write, network with them, and learn from them. Attend special events and conferences. Read blogs of people in your area of interest. Look up videos and article online about your topic of interest. Write, discuss and share what you are learning. There are so many free and open ways to learn in our increasingly connected world. Learn about them and take advantage of them. Another degree may still be valuable to you for any number of reasons, but answering this question will help you clarify what you really need or want.

5. Are you looking for the fastest way to a degree or are you looking to learn as much as possible?

Your answer may be a mix of the two and that is alright. After all, your life is more than college. With the intense marketing campaigns in higher education, you can find plenty of programs that boast of allowing you to finish the degree in a shorter period time. Beware of “get your degree quickly” schemes. It takes time to learn new things, and cramming all your work into shorter time frames is almost certain to decrease how much skill you develop and how much knowledge you retain. You will not find many places blatantly stating that you can get your degree with minimal effort, but read between the lines. Adding more “quick and easy” diplomas to the world risks decreasing the perceive value of that degree for everyone. Beware of diploma mills. A diploma mill is not just a school that gives you a diploma for doing nothing, but it also includes organizations that are continually lowering the bar for what it takes to get a given diploma. Flexibility and respect for the rest of your life is critical, but are high academic standards.

6. How much is your interest in increased status?

This is a reality. Sometimes people pursue degrees because they want the status associated with them. However, do take the time to carefully consider if this is an important enough reason. There are people with very high status in many fields of study who do not have multiple degrees. Look at Joi Ito at the MIT Media Lab. He doesn’t even have a degree and is leading one of the more high profile higher education projects in the country. Of course, he is brilliant, but that is my point. Do you want status because of what you know and can do or just because of letters behind your name?

7. Are you ready to take on the social responsibility associated with a graduate degree in a given area?

If you are interested in a graduate degree, know that there is a social responsibility that comes with it. Not all agree with this standard, but I contend that it is essential. Earning a graduate degree in a discipline is also agreeing to take the responsibility to be a thought leader in that discipline. You are committed to ongoing study and reading in that area, contributing to the field in substantive ways, and holding to a high ethical and intellectual standard. If you don’t want this responsibility, then pass on the extra degree. There is plenty that you can learn on your own.

8. What other credentials exist that relate to your goals?

As I so often state, we are in the Wild West Era of education. New academic currencies continue to develop. Take time to learn about the many different types of credentials available in your area of interest. Take the field of education as an example. There are digital badges through groups like Digital Promise (just in a beta at the time of this writing); non-degree certificates; graduate certificates; leadership programs; alternate routes to new teaching certificates and endorsements; and educator certifications through groups like Apple, Google, Discovery Education. Find the equivalent training and certifications in your area of interest. What can you learn from these compared to degree programs? What prestige or social value do these different credentials hold?

9. What is the actual cost of a desired degree?

Most of us have experienced “sales” in stores during the holidays where prices seemed to be raised soon before the holiday and then they put on a 25% discount advertising campaign. In the end, you feel like you are getting a bargain, but they are charging you as much as before. The same thing is happening in higher education. There are some places that have a higher starting tuition but then they boast of discounts. Other colleges are providing true discounts to make college more affordable. Take the time to do your homework, learn the facts, and compare the real cost of the degree. Don’t just getting pulled in by a crafty advertising scheme.

10. What is the return on investment for another college degree?

Degrees are about more than getting a larger income. I am not talking just about a financial return on investment. I am referring to what you get out of the degree compared to what you have to put into it in terms of time and money. To answer this, you need to have a detailed and clear answer to question #1 about your goals.

11. Find people who are the best at what you want to do or learn. How did they get there? How did they learn?

Reach out to them. Interview view. Find out how much college helped them and how much they learned on their own or on the job. Some knowledge and skill can be learned in a college setting, but many skills are best learned in real world contexts. Taking the time to explore this will help you get the best idea of how to achieve your goals, and it will help build that personal learning network.

12. How can you contribute to a culture of competence and confidence more than credentialism?

While credentials and titles are a big deal in much of society, they are not the same thing as being competent. We need more competent people in every field. Competence helps people and sometimes even saves lives. Credentials don’t do that. From the perspective of a social good, credentials are only as valuable as the competence that they are intended to represent. We need communities and societies that truly value competence more than credentials. If another degree is really about getting more competent and it can genuinely help in that pursuit, then consider it. If not, please pass on the extra credential.

Getting Informed About the Risks & Challenges of Credentialism

Credentialism is often described as the over-emphasis of credentials in society, impacting access to employment, social mobility, and overall social status. With growing interest in nano-diplomas, micro-credentials, the idea of the college degree as a minimum requirement for many jobs; credentialism is an important topic for reflection and discussion.

Much of the initial work on this subject started in the 1970s, but a small number of scholars, authors and others remain vocal about the problem today, especially as we see more people viewing the college degree as becoming the entry-level credential for jobs, and as we see emerging alternatives to traditional credentials.

My concern is with increased access and opportunity, for an education system that cultivates self-directed learners with high levels of agency. Credentialism serves formal learning organizations and other continuing education providers by helping increase the perceived value of credentials earned through these organizations. It leads to a more viable economic model for such institutions. Yet, education is first a social endeavor, one with goals focused upon social good. Learning organizations that become about little more than keeping their doors open, self-preservation, or maintaining control through a monopoly of credentials risk losing sight of the fact that they are a social enterprise. There are economic realities, but those realities are not the organizational mission.

In such a context, I see great value in learning from the many existing resources on the challenges of credentialisim. With that in mind, here are eight such online resources to serve as a primer on the topic. Following that list is a second list of suggested books on the subject.

The Social Sources of Educational Credentialism – This essay provides a number of thought-provoking insights into the role of education credentials for social mobility, as well as how credentialism potentially undermines other important aims of formal education.

The Case Against Credentialism – This Atlantic article from 1985 provides a compelling case against credentialism, drawing attention away from actual knowledge and skill, instead elevating the academic symbols.

The Higher Ed Crisis: Credentialism – “An education and a degree are not the same.” This article expands upon that claim.

The New Politics of Education: Credentialism and Grade Inflation – This article not only addresses credentialism but also perceived challenges associated with grade inflation. The author points out the dangers of using academic credential primarily as currency for employment.

The Soaring Cost of Credentialism – This article makes the important distinction between learning about a profession in a classroom and experiencing in on the job. However, the focus is upon the economic benefits of increased professional credentials in higher education for professors and those leading such institutions.

The Diploma Disease - This is the title of a 1976 book. The link takes you to a short book review, introducing some of the themes in this original text, opening our eyes to some the downside and limitation of an over-dependence upon diplomas a credentials for employment.

Functional and Conflict Theories in Educational Stratification – This academic article is not an easy read for all, but it provides an insight into the connection between educational attainment and social stratification.

Credential Inflation and the Future of Universities – This academic article argues that the “mass production of academic credentials for employment” is a significant problem in contemporary society.

Suggested Books About Credentialism 








Creating as the Foundation of Formative Education

There is no shortage of voices pointing out the need to move beyond industrial-age factory model of education. I am one of them, but I am also a strong critic of criticism that does not offer a compelling alternative. It is one thing to argue that the factory model of education is outdated, but then what? What do we put in its place?

I will illustrate my point using one example of industrial age practices. I am candid about my critique of letter grades.. The letter grade system is an antiquated educational technology that does not align with our growing knowledge about best and promising practices in teaching and learning. Yet, we persist with such practices because:

  1. the letter grade has become a trusted academic currency,
  2. we have built educational systems around this technology,
  3. questions about the letter grade system are not widely discussed,
  4. educational leaders are often “winners” in the traditional game of education (including letter grades) and find no reason to change things,
  5. there is not a clear picture of the negative impact of letter grades,
  6. many remain uninformed about the wonderfully promising current and emerging alternatives,
  7. teacher training is primarily in how to function in an industrial model of education so changes may be seen as personal risks or challenges to teacher’s current understanding of how to teach and motivate students,
  8. there is a sense that letter grades are so deeply embedded that it is hard to see how things could change, and
  9. most people do not have a clear understanding of why and how to make the shift toward one or more of the alternatives.

We are not going to critique our way through the eventual shift away from letter grades. Authors like Alfie Kohn do a fine job pointing out the limitations of something like the letter grade system, but they also offer alternatives. I contend that we need more focus on the alternatives. A critique is necessary, but it is creation that will lead a growing number of learning organizations to abandon letter grades in place of something better. It is getting informed about the possibilities, creating new possibilities, and having the courage and boldness to bring those creations to life. The CD didn’t replace the album because of the many limitations of the album, but because the creation and experience of the CD was embraced as a more promising option.

This is true about many challenges and needs in society as well. There is an important role for critique of the status quo, but we need visionaries who see new possibilities, make them a reality, and invite others to experience what they have created. We need more creators.

This is why I contend that creation should be a central curricular focus of learning organizations. So much can be learned through the process of creating. We can create great questions, positive relationships, communities around a shared social issue, compelling and thoughtful narratives, solutions to problems in the local community or the world, valuable products and services, music, art, scientific experiments, and much more. Imagine a learning organization that made such creation the central attribute of the learning organization. Imagine what could be learned and what rich and valuable creations could be shared with the world in the process.




Earning, Learning & the Currency of Schools

“Congratulations! You earned an ‘A+’!”

“You have all worked hard and earned these diplomas.”

“You gave me an ‘A’?”
“No. I didn’t give you an ‘A’. You earned it.”

We hear this word “earn” mentioned often in educational institutions. The seems to have its origin in the Old English word, “earnian”. As I examine the etymology, it has a long history of being about laboring for something, or getting the benefits from harvest work. Today it also has a strong economic meaning. Our taxes are based on our earnings and the first definition in our dictionaries is about earning money for work.

With this in mind, letter grades, diplomas, certificates, and even emerging credentials like digital badges are all a form of currency.  They are abstractions that we earn for some accomplishment or achievement.

Here is a major difference. With currency (like the dollar), we often use it in exchange for products or services. That is not how it works with credentials. We do not exchange our credentials. We maintain them even as we use them. Instead, credentials are less about currency and more about evidence.

But wait? If credentials are more about evidence than currency, why do we use the language of currency in reference to them? Perhaps it is because we have established an educational system that, at the time of the industrial revolution, became mainly about job preparation. What better way to prepare people for an industrial age job than to create an educational system where you have them do work and then they “pay” you something for your work? In the case of schools, we have a system that rewards or pays according to how carefully one follows the instructions, how well one accomplishes the given jobs according to the standards established by the boss. It is with this in mind that it is no surprise to see schools experimenting with changing the currency, namely paying students vouchers or actual money in return for their work in school. This is a logical result of thinking about student learning (or at least student work) in mainly economic terms.

This also helps us understand a problem with the letter grade system. When I write and talk with people about the limitations of the letter grade system, I often do the syllabus experiment. I ask them to find any syllabus and try to calculate the highest possible grade one could earn by knowing very little and the lowest possible grade while knowing a great deal. Doing these experiment with several syllabi, we quickly discover that the grade one “earns” is not directly connected to what a student does or does not know. Instead, it represents whether a student met a series of standards and expectations. Did they participate in the way that the teacher desired? Did they do things on the teacher-established timeline? Did they color within the lines (both literally and figuratively)? Did they complete things in the appropriate order? Did they know enough about the subject prior to the start of the course? Were they able to learn something quickly and with less time necessary? This all fits nicely with the idea of preparing workers to function in an industrial system. As such, many teachers see grades as a form of payment for doing what is expected, but not as much as evidence of what one has or has not learned. It is not about learning. It is about earning. And yet, we use mistake letter grades as the best evidence of learning.

The problem is that letter grades are not a strong predictor of high performance in many contemporary jobs. They predict success within further school systems that also use the same currency, but they don’t transfer as effectively outside that system. Check out the myriad of articles about Google’s discovery of this fact.

This is why I contend that it is time to seriously and more broadly consider alternatives (or at least parallel options) to the current system of credentialing in educational institutions. What about standards-based education, portfolio assessments, narrative assessments, and even open badge systems? Each of these have their own limitations, but they also have their benefits. Some of them, like digital badges, continue to use the language of earning. Yet, they also offer the affordance of potentially being more directly tied to evidence of learning, and they are truly “owned” by the learner once they are “earned” (unlike grades which are maintained in the files of the issuing institution). I see badges as a promising option that builds on the current metaphor of earning, but can help us progress toward a greater focus on learning. Yet, options like portfolio and narrative assessment allow us to potentially move away from the language of earning. They become about feedback, about documentation, about making evidence of learning visible to others.

Ultimately, my question is about our goals and intended purpose in education. Do we want education to be mainly about earning? Or, are we willing to adjust our language, metaphors and practices to foster communities of more genuine learning?