Etale Year in Review – 185 Countries, 185 Articles, Top Articles, Top Searches, and More

At the end of each year, I like to look back over the last twelve months to see what I can learn from my writing and the readership at Etale. What resonated the most with readers? What articles received the most unique visitors and what were people inclined to share the most? Who was interested and why? Which search terms result in the most visitors? How did people learn about the site or article? What countries are represented in my readership? This year included more than a few surprises and interesting insights. As such, here is the 2016 summary by the statistics.

How many articles did you publish?

From January 1, 2016 to December 28, 2016 I published 185 articles on (although I deleted 6 of them), averaging 3.5 articles a week. I published 3 articles a week steadily throughout the year, but there were a few weeks where I clearly had a bit more to say, publishing 8 articles in one week. Then there were the week when I only published a couple articles.

People ask me about how I manage to write so much, and I often explain that this is not a forum for polished articles. These are rough draft thoughts, a way for me to process and make sense of new and old ideas while also connecting with people around the world about those ideas. Most of my writing happens on the weekend, but instead of publishing 3 or 4 articles on a  Saturday, I schedule them to release throughout the week. In fact, I’ve been known to write 6 or 7 articles on a weekend, setting them up to release over the next two or three weeks.

Etale is just one of many forums for my writing. I guest blog on occasion, write for popular and academic publications, write white papers on occasion for organizations, and then there is the book writing that keeps me occupied most days. As the quote says at the top of my blog and I like to repeat, I’m fond of Isaac Asimov’s quote that, “Writing is just thinking with your fingers.”

What did you write about?

Scanning the articles from 2016, much of my writing focused on some aspect of nurturing agency and self-education. The future of education, education reform, education policy, the need for and role of educational innovation, and alternative credentials were also frequent themes. I don’t plan out themes in advance. What I write is what I’m thinking about at the moment. In fact, readers may notice patterns in my thinking before I see them (and I’m grateful when readers point them out to me).

What were the most popular articles?

I like to break this up into two categories. The first includes articles that are all-time top picks for readers, ut they also continue to garner the most traffic on the site in the current year. The second category represents articles that I published in 2016 that garnered the most readers.

For the all-time top picks that also topped the list in 2016, we have four.

Interestingly, each of these also connect to projects on the docket in 2016. I hope to have a new book published early in 2016 about self-directed learning. I also have a finished manuscript about grading and assessment, and I’m going to explain more about a new experimental form of inquiry for me in 2017 that will look at the letter grade system in education. In addition, I published a book in 2016 that was inspired by the last article, What Really Matters? Ten Critical Issues in Education.

The top ten articles published in 2016 are:

I have plans to expand on some of these in 2017 in a variety of forms, new articles, new books, and more. You are welcome to sign up for the Etale Newlsetter if you want to be the first to learn about these projects.

One thing that became evident this year more than any other was that list articles consistently get the most readers. 6 of the top 10 new articles and all the all-time most read articles include a numbered list. This says more to me about what captures readers attention online than it does anything else. As a writer who focuses much of his work on theory, philosophy, and think pieces, I confess that this is a little disheartening, but it does prompt me to think about how to best communicate my ideas in a way that is true to myself but also digestible for readers. I don’t ever anticipate Etale becoming a concrete “how to” site, but it is good to acknowledge the practical focus of many readers.

How did people discover Etale articles?

Google searches continue to be the most common way that people end up on the site or a specific article. Producing 180 articles in a year with a little SEO doesn’t hurt. Bing and Yahoo also direct a modest number of people to the site (but less than 5% of what Google did in 2016). After the search engines, Twitter and Facebook were even for the second most frequent referrers. After those two, we have Scoop.It, LinkedIn, Pinterest, and Google+.

I also a few 2016 referrers coming from email servers, often school or University ones. I’m delighted to see that as it seems like these usually happen when someone reads an article, finds it useful or provocative, and sends it to colleagues as a resource or a discussion starter. I love to see this, as I often like to think of my writing as a form of kindling to fuel the fire of rich and substantive discourse about what matters in education today. Like all good kindling, it burns up in the fire, and I’m fine when my writing plays that role.

What keywords brought people to Etale?

It is always intriguing to see what people were seeking and how that led them to the site. What did they type into the search engine to get here? Part of this has to do with search engine optimization and ranking of certain articles. Then there is how much “competition” is out there on the same topic. Nonetheless, here are ten themes that show up consistently in the top searches that lead people to the site.

  1. self-directed learning lesson examples (and a dozen other derivations of searches about self-directed learning)
  2. critical issues in education (problems in education and many other related searches)
  3. educational documentaries
  4. letter grades (and many derivations)
  5. microcredentialing
  6. digital badges
  7. types of educational technology (I wrote an article which those exact words a few years back)
  8. teacher-centered versus learner-centered
  9. educational innovation
  10. the future in education

People end up at Etale when they want to explore self-directed learning, critical issues in education, and the role of credentials and assessment in education, education reform, and the future of education. This is consistent from 2015, with the exception that Etale is a growing destination point for people who want to explore critical issues and problems in modern education.

What countries are represented in the readership?

I counted twice on this one because I didn’t believe the results at first. Out of the 196 countries in the world, people from 185 of those countries read one or more articles on Etale in 2016. English-speaking countries are obviously at the top of the list. The largest number of readers in 2016 came from the United States. After that, there was a close second between Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, and India. Then there is a third grouping that included the European Union, the Philippines, New Zealand, Hong Kong, South Africa, Malaysia, and Singapore. The fourth group included Pakistan along with individual naming of most of the countries in the European Union (I’m not quite sure about the rhyme or reason behind some visitors showing up by a specific country and others simply by the broader “European Union” label).

It is still amazing to me that an academic from Wisconsin can write and self-publish articles from his living room (home library, or the local coffee shop down the street) that reach people in that many countries around the world. Of course, now I need to figure out which 11 countries are not on that list and how to invite those people to join the Etale reading excitement.

How many people visited Etale this year?

Etale is still a niche site. Up to this point, I don’t get millions of readers each month or year. This year we had just under 140,000 visitors. There continues to be a slow but steady growth in readers from year to year. Etale was never about becoming a major news source, but I do aspire to expand the conversation about ideas that matter in education. As such, I look forward to finding new ways to connect with even more people in 2017, and I welcome your help in that effort by sharing articles that resonate with you.

Quick Reflection

I’ve been blogging for over a decade, but it is only in the last few years that I started writing over a hundred articles a year. During these last few years especially, I connected with people around the world and discovered countless new ways to invest my time and energy in sparking thought, conversation, and action around critical issues in education. Readers of Etale are the ones who encouraged me to put more of my ideas in writing, being the impetus for three books published in 2016 and much more to come. More than ever, I see education as one of the most powerful forms of social entrepreneurship in existence, and my resolve in promoting this way of thinking is stronger than ever. This brief year in review is yet another source of insight and inspiration on this lifelong calling to challenge people to consider the significance and relevance of ideas that matter in education and society. Ultimately, my work is and will remain an ongoing exploration of truth, beauty, and goodness in this world and beyond.

What is a Chief Innovation Officer?

Recently, I got a new title. I still have the old ones. I remain a professor and AVP of Academics. Now I’m also the Chief Innovation Officer. Of course, that begs the question. What is a chief innovation officer? As best as I can tell, it goes back almost twenty years, drawn out of the broader world of research and development, which I find helpful in thinking about the different expressions of chief innovation officers across organizations.

When it comes to research and development, there tend to be three emphases, all of which align with a central purpose. R&D units in companies and organizations have the task of championing and forming innovations that further the core mission and business of a company. Yet, those three emphases are important to recognize.

Sustaining Innovations

There are the sustaining innovations that some R&D units pursue. These relate to enhancements and improvement of existing products and services. This might been revamping an existing product or service to better serve existing users of that product or service. It might also involve reworking a product or service in a way that it meets the need of a new audience.

Another way of looking at sustaining innovations is to think of the learner, customer or end user. Many great sustaining innovations come from observing, learning from and listening to these end users. It is about finding out what is working, what is not, what needs are unmet, what expectations might be unmet or only partially met. Or, it might be about how the current products or services are just not accomplishing the end goals for the user. From that research, we revise existing products or create new ones.

In the world of education, this is where the majority of innovation work focuses. We are learning about what is working and what is not. Then we use that data to improve the student outcomes, student experience, student satisfaction, or a combination of these three.

Disruptive Innovations

Focus upon truly disruptive innovations is almost non-existent in the education space. A truly disruptive innovation creates a new market or disrupts an existing one. It might be a small market, not tapping into the audience served by the dominant and related products and services. Of course, this is speculative. It is heard to determine if a technology or innovation will be disruptive. Yet, we do know a few things. First, disruptive innovations are often ignored or belittled by the largest players in a domain. From a financial perspective, the return on investment might not even look very favorable. So, the small startup or grassroots effort has an opportunity.

Because of the speculative nature, the attempt to find and grow a disruptive innovation is almost certain to include multiple failed attempts. Of course, learning organizations are risk averse and have negative views of failure, which is why most learning organizations don’t venture into this world. Yet, those who do, and do so successfully, tend to create a culture of experimentation and pilots. They take a concept and try it out for different contexts and populations, perhaps a dozen until the right one is discovered.

Curiosity-Driven R&D

There is another category of work that sometimes involved a Chief Innovation Officer. This is heavier one the pure, curiosity-driven research. There are questions posed and research is conducted to seek answers to those questions. There might be my initial application of the knowledge pursued or acquired. This is much more exploratory and not necessarily even focused on a potential product or service. Yet, many great and practical ideas do come from this sort of exploratory work research. The one who conducts the research and the one who applies it to solve real-world problems might even be a different person.

CIO Roles

So, what does this have to do with the role of a Chief Innovation Officer. As I learn more about this role myself, I’ve come to define it this way. The role of the CIO is to champion innovative policies, practices, procedures, and programs that further the mission of the organization. This might come in the form of sustaining innovations. It might involve efforts to identify that right fit for a disruptive technology. It might involve supporting more curiosity-driven research too. At the same time, the CIO might be involved with promoting innovations and collaborations across units, promoting and pursuing that which is unlikely to take root in a single unit. So, someone living and working within the seams of these units might have what it takes to move things forward. In addition, this CIO might be the one to draw people together for shared accountability, all for the sake of innovation in pursuit of the organization’s mission.

The CIO is not necessarily the one doing all of the innovating. Sometimes he/she is, but the primary role is to promote and champion innovation wherever is arises or exists. This will result is a much broader range of innovations, far beyond what a single person or team could accomplish. At least that is how I plan to approach the role.

Notes & Quotes from Jim Collins at the 2016 ASUGSV Summit

On the second day of the ASU/GSV Summit, a keynote from Jim Collins got us started right. I’ve read all of his books, some more than once, but this is the first time that I’ve heard him in person, and he did not disappoint. Even though I didn’t hear many new ideas, something sunk in a little more this time as I listened and considered the implications for my current and future leadership in education. Whether you were at the live event and want a recap or you are looking for a glimpse from a distance, I put together the following notes and quotes that stuck with me. Perhaps you will find them useful as well.

“We can’t settle for good schools in any sector of education…and not just for some kids.”

This was his opening statement. Our students deserve and need better than good. With this quote Collins launched us into a review of key tenets from his work, but with the context of education in mind. Not only did he challenge us to pursue great in our schools but to do it for all kids, not just those who are fortunate enough to live in the right zip codes.

Building a great organization is not merely a function of circumstance. It is a matter of conscious choice and disciplined leadership. [paraphrase]

For those who want to think that the great organizations just got lucky, Collins has a body of research to indicate otherwise. This is something that happens by choice.

 Even though my original work was drawing from the business sector, I am not saying that we should run education just like a business. [paraphrase] “The key distinction is not between business and education but between great and good…This is not a business idea. It is a greatness idea.”

Some are critical when people start trying to use principles of business and apply them to the world of schools and education. Yet, Collins has research from businesses and schools, and he argues that this is not about business versus school. This is about good versus great. Do we care about the mission of our schools enough to pursue greatness?

With this, Collins took us through twelve questions that a leader can ask or an organization can ask to pursue greatness. These questions are drawn from the key ideas in his books, and a handy PDF version is available here. I already have it saved on my computer and started to scribble down thoughts to explore with my teams.

“Are we willing to strive for level 5 leaders?”

Leadership is not personality. In fact, many of the greatest leaders seemed to have, what Collins called, a charisma bypass. Instead, it is not a charismatic person that matters but a compelling mission. In the words of Collins, “If you have a charismatic cause, you do not need to be a charismatic leader.”

This type of leadership includes, “a mixture of personal humility combined with an indomitable will.” Level 5 leadership is tied to the idea of service. These leaders have plenty of ambition. It is just that the ambition is funneled into the cause, not self-promotion. This is because level 4 leaders inspire people to follow them, but level 5 leaders inspire people to follow a cause.

In looking at schools, Collins noted that it isn’t just the top leader. We need exceptional leadership at the unit level. “That is where really great things get done.” This is where we need to to find, train, hire, and raise up level 5 leaders if we are going to achieve greatness in our learning organizations. The unit leader is the key to exceptional results. “The unit leader is a huge swing variable. The unit leader makes a huge difference on what happens to those kids. We need legions of level 5 leaders in our schools.”

Another way that Collins framed it is with the following challenge. “Assume you are dead in five years. What is on your plate?” Do the things that matter to you, that resonate with your deepest passions.

Do we have the right people on the bus and in the right seats?

People on our teams matter. In fact, they matter so much that Collins encouraged us think about who to get on the bus and which seats to put each person in before trying to figure out where to drive the bus. “What are my key seats? How to I ensure that at least 90% of my seats are filled with the right people?” This isn’t just hiring the right people. “The one thing to really get at is figuring out how to get the right people in the key seats. Every leader who figured out how to do this, they eventually built out a core set of people on their bus that created the results.”

What are the brutal facts and how can we better live the Stockdale paradox?

Collins draws this from Admiral Jim Stockdale’s survival of torture and imprisonment. As Stockdale explained to him once, “I never capitulated in despair, because I never waivered on the idea that I would get out and that I would turn it into the defining part of my life… Yet, Stockdale wanted to make an important distinction. I was not optimistic. I just never capitulated to despair. You must never every confuse the need for unwavering faith that you will prevail in the end with the discipline to face the most brutal facts as they are.” This is not about having some Pollyanna perspective. It is facing the facts and reality of the situation but maintaining hope.

What is our hedgehog concept?

“The way great organizations get built is a fairly organic and cumulative process that looks like a breakthrough.” He used a missile analogy to explain this. Imagine that you see a missile come out of the water. It didn’t just come into existence. It has been under the water for a long time before we notice it.

We need to figure this hedgehog concept out. This one big idea, doing what we are truly passionate about, doing what we can do better than anyone else in the world, and making a distinctive impact. To get at this, ask this question. If your organization disappeared, who would miss you?

From there we get to the flywheel effect. With a fly wheel, you eep pushing and pushing and pushing in a logical direction and then it hits breakthrough momentum. And in education, there is the organizational flywheel, but then what Collins called the “uber flywheel” of the larger education sector. We have to be about both our organization and the larger flywheel.

How can we accelerate clicks on the Flywheel by committing to a 20-Mile March?

This is about being all in and all in for the long haul. It is about doing your homework, settting your goals, staying focused, and making solid, steady progress. It is about hold backing from getting overzealous or burnt out, but also pushing through on the difficult days. Southwest Airlines said, “we will be profitable every year no matter what.” Then they made it happen. There has to be a “no matter what” mindset to this. What is your 20-mile march? “This is about long-term, consecutive, consistent performance.”

Collins gave the example of a several thousand mile bike ride -The key was that they made all the hotel reservations in advance. They didn’t have a choice but to keep pedaling until they got to the next stop. That is the spirit of the 20-mile march.

“What will you commit to with fanatic discipline?” On the flip side, the signature of mediocrity is chronic inconsistency. We can’t be changing every 2-3 years or being inconsistent. We need cumulative momentum. Pick something good and then stay with it for the long haul.

This isn’t about getting the perfect idea. Find something good and then persist. As he explained, “Better to polish a lead bullet to silver than to search endlessly for the perfect silver bullet.”

“Lots of people get clobbered because it is rational to ignore trends in the short run. The 20-mile march can help. Ask this question. “What are we highly confident will have changed by 15-20 years from now?” When we get that, starting marching in that direction and persist because great leaders manage for the quarter century.

Where should we place our big bets, based on the principle “Fire Bullets, then Cannonballs”—blending creativity and discipline to scale innovation?

In his research, Collins learned that 10x leaders didn’t innovate more than their competitors. They innovated in a different way. They engaged in what he called “empirical innovation.” Fire small bullets…small innovations until you know that you are on target. Then you can pull out the big guns.

When people don’t succeed, they either didn’t fire enough bullets. Or, they fired bullets, got calibration, but didn’t fire a cannonball. Or, to look bold, they skipped the bullets and just fired big, uncalibrated cannonballs.

Do we show any signs of How the Mighty Fall, and do we have enough Productive Paranoia to stay far above the Death Line?

“The only mistakes you can learn from are the ones you survive… This is why great companies carry 3-10x the cash assets than the competition even when they were small.”

How can we do a better job at Clock Building, not just Time Telling?

People make the mistake of putting all their trust in a solitary genius or leader. Sometimes they stop being geniuses, they die or leave. “If your company can’t be great without you, it is not a truly great company.”

Do we embrace the Genius of the AND—especially the fundamental dynamic of “Preserve the Core AND Stimulate Progress”?

“Preserve the core and stimulate progress…A core value is something that you would hold even if it hurt you to hold.” We want this balance. We are uncompromising on our core values, but then stimulate progress. The trick is that people confuse values and practices. Values are what we don’t want to change. Yet, when we change a practice, sometimes people accuse us of changing the values. We need to help people avoid confusing the two.

What is our Big Hairy Audacious Goal (BHAG)?

This is about giving yourself over to some gigantic obsession that dwarfs you, something that takes over your life. A good  “BHAG suspends all existential angst” because you are so absorbed in it. “Get great people and give them really big things to do.” This is in contrast with the mistake some make of putting their best people on their biggest problems instead of their greatest opportunities.

However, you want to choose your BHAGs well because you will create cynicism in your organization if you change them too much.

How can we increase our Return on Luck (ROL), making the most of our good luck and bad?

What if a lot of this just comes down to luck? He asked this question and found that the great organizations were not more or less lucky. They just had a great ROL (return on luck). In other words, they made use of the luck better than others when it came along.

In addition, Collins noted that “luck favors the persistent.” “True creators stay in the game.” “If we believe that life comes down to a single hand we can lose, but if we see it as a series of hands and we play every hand as best as we can…” good things will happen. What really matters is how you play each hand you are dealt over the long haul. No enterprise or great body of work comes from a single hand of work.”

What should be on our Stop Doing list?

First, Collins warned that if you have more than 3 priorities, you have 0 prioriteis. In addition, it is not just about making a to-do list. We need to decide what we will no longer do. What do we need to stop doing in education?

A Few More Quotes and Notes

Then there were a few more quotables and nuggets during the wonderful and extended Q&A time.

  • “Be disciplined in daily routine so I can be violent and outrageous in my work.” (quoting someone…can’t remember who)
  • Jim Collins, “sits down every year and starts with the ‘dead in 5’ premise and build a not-to-do list. If it can’t pass the 5-year plan, I can’t do it.
  • “Stop unnecessary fire drills.” Lots of the emotional stuff is very unproductive.
  • Amid a field with lots of outside regulation and policies…. policies, don’t pull them down. Say… “Okay, so what is in our control and then focus on that.”
  • Collins’ BHAG for education? – “There is no statistically significant difference and there is no significant difference in the quality of education across all zip codes.”
  • “We need a West Point for school leaders.”
  • A key piece of advice in his earlier years was from John Gardner. “Jim it occurs to me that you spend way too much time being interesting. Why don’t you spend more time being interested?”
  • Real creativity very much accelerates after 50. Peter Drucker – at age 65 –  he was 1/3rd of the way through the books that he wrote.
  • “Forever banish the question of preparing for retirement. Replace it with preparing for renewal.”

As I said, much of this might be familiar, but this is the sort of stuff worth reviewing and returning to time and time again. Or, if we haven’t thought about how to apply it to education, now is our chance.

10 Educational Trends to Watch in 2016

Each year I put together a list of 10 educational trends that we can expect to gain even more traction in the upcoming year. 2016 will be no different. This year I find many familiar trends, some that first made my list five to ten years ago, but now they are gaining momentum and are likely to garner more startup and grant funding, not to mention finding their way in some of the more innovative schools and classrooms around the world. With that said, I confess that some of my predictions from last year were somewhat premature. Several of them are making their way to the list again. I was just a little bit too far ahead of the curve. Let’s see how I do in 2016. Without those clarifications and caveats, here are my 10 educational trends to watch in 2015.

Educational Trend #1 – Assessment Beyond Testing

With President Obama himself speaking out about our need to get over the testing craze, we now have a growing conversation on the power and possibility of assessment. Look for greater attention to formative assessment innovations, those checks and feedback loops that actually help people learn and monitor their progress.

Educational Trend #2 – The Melding of Formative & Summative Assessment

This will not be the defining year for the melding of formative and summative assessment, but there will be significant growth in this area. At minimum, more people will come to understand what I mean by a statement like, “the melding of formative and summative assessment.” They will begin to see how and why this is possible, and what affordances it might bring about. As people discover the power of assessment innovations plus learning analytics and  trend #3 (games and learning), we start to discover that traditional and standardized testing may eventually not be necessary at some point. We will be able to garner such a rich and accurate profile of each learner through this ongoing formative assessment and collection of learner data, that we just don’t need those old-fashioned tests. This will not happen in 2016, but you will see new and louder voices pointing us to such a future…along with some possible startups and products that help is better imagine the possibilities.

Educational Trend #3 – Games & Learning

I’m talking about the full gamut here: educational simulations, gamification principles, game-based learning software, game design in the classroom and more. This has been gaining traction for well over a decade and now we are seeing a new round of startups and thought-leaders in the area who are doing something with it. It includes everything from the low-tech to the uber high-tech and it will be a standard part of the typical classroom in the future. For 2016 though, just look for growing interest and some shining models of what will be.

Educational Trend #4 – Virtual Reality

We are probably 2-5 years out of this one really gaining ground, but with a couple of solid virtual reality products hitting or extending in the market in 2016, we are sure to see early adopters and innovators starting to explore and try out some educational applications. In time, this has incredible potential to turn previously abstract lessons into immersive and concrete learning experiences. Put this with games-based learning and assessment innovations and we have a glimpse into schools of the future, not to mention workforce development and training beyond formal schooling.

Educational Trend #5 – Alternative Education

Alternative education is, interestingly, finding its way closer to the mainstream. Watch the rapid expansion and duplication of any number of alternative schooling models. I’ve written about Acton Academy which has new schools starting each year. There are a half dozen others expanding as well. By the end of 2016, expect a dozen more such models replicating themselves. Eventually, anyone living near a city of 200,000+ will have at least a couple alternative education options available to them.

Educational Trend #6 – Self-Directed Learning & Learning Outside the Walls of School

I put it on my list in 2015 and I place it in 2016 as well. Even the 2016 National Educational Technology Plan recognizes the importance of learning independent of formal schooling and curriculum. Watch new grants, competitions, and experiments further push this closer to mainstream conversations in education. School can be impactful, but all those learning opportunities outside of school are putting some at a clear advantage.

Educational Trend #7 – Strength-based Education

2016 will have plenty of debates and conversations rooted in a deficiency model of education (fixing kids), but the strength-based education research and movement continues to grow. More people see its possibilities and benefits, nd families consistently want that for their kids, not to mention adults who are trying to figure out how to maximize their impact while earning a living wage.

Educational Trend #8 – Online Identity Management + Show Your Work

If you want to see the future of the employment search, networking and talent management; look no further than LinkedIn. What they are doing is paving the way for a future where it is not just about your credentials but it is about your networks and ability to how what you have accomplished and what you can accomplish. Austin Kleon’s book, Show Your Work, was spot on, and we are going to see a wealth of more people begin to recognize and invest in learning how to do this for themselves in 2016. This is the concept of a portfolio blended with social networking and big data, and it is going to be big. While not all that will happen in 2016, more people will start to see where all this is going, and that will be the beginning of the “show your work” revolution for employment.

Educational Trend #9 – The Edupreneur

Related to #8, the educator with an entrepreneurial spirit is finding his and her way in this new connected world. She is self-publishing, building a list of clients and a speaking agenda, creating valued resources, and more. Expect to see a growing market of such edupreneurs in 2016, showing up in social media and beyond.

Educational Trend #10 – Social Video

This might seem anti-climactic, but Google Hangouts, Skype and all the others are going to a new level in 2016. I’ve pointed to Blab as a model, but we are seeing a new phase of video interaction online, a sort of Google Hangouts meets Twitter and the 1990s chat rooms. Look for this to have a growing group of fans and experiments in the education crowd in 2016. Blab will probably not make it, but the features and idea of Blab will leave a mark.

There you have it. Those are my 10 educational trends for 2016. There are plenty of others to watch as well, but these are a good starting point. As with my past lists, keep in mind that I’m not claiming these will all be mainstream in the current year, but this will be a defining year for their growth, expansion and impact.